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Directorate on Accident Investigation
ROLE OF DAI

1. Institute and determine the extent of air accidents/incidents investigation
2. Conduct investigation of air accidents/incidents
3. Accident Prevention through Safety Data Collection and Processing System


DAI may recommend to the appropriate authorities, including those in other States, any preventive or remedial action considered necessary to be taken promptly to enhance aviation safety at any stage of the investigation of an aircraft accident or incident.
DAI will address, when appropriate, any safety recommendations arising out of its investigations, to the accident investigation authorities of other State(s) concerned and, when ICAO documents are involved, to ICAO.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK

INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS AND DOMESTIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DAI


Botswana, an ICAO Contracting State, is obligated to comply with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) contained in Annexes to the Convention on International Civil Aviation otherwise referred to as the Chicago Convention.


ICAO Annex 13 contains SARPs relating to institution and conduct of Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigations.  Civil Aviation Act No. 11 of 2011 and Civil Aviation (Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation) Regulations, 2012 contain the applicable provisions and rules on aircraft accident investigation.

>>>download the Civil Aviation Act of Botswana

>>>download the the regulations on Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation

 

DEFINITION


An accident is defined as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such person has disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion systems are shut down, in which:
A- a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of
i. being in the aircraft;
ii. direct contact with any of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft;
or
iii. direct exposure to jet blast,
 or
B-the aircraft sustains substantial damage or structural failure which;
i. adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and
ii. would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, or
 C-the aircraft is missing or completely inaccessible.

The above A) excludes the injuries from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or the injuries to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew. The above B) excludes engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to a single engine, (including its cowlings or accessories), propellers, wing tips, antennas, probes, vanes, tires, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors, windscreens, the aircraft skin (such as small dents or puncture holes), or minor damages to main rotor blades, tail rotor blades, landing gear, and those resulting from hail or bird strike (including holes in the radome)

"Causes" mean actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident. The identification of causes does not imply the assignment of fault or the determination of administrative, civil or criminal liability.

"Fatal injury" means an injury resulting in death within thirty (30) days of the date of the accident.

"Incident" means an occurrence, associated with the operation of an aircraft other than an accident, which affects or could affect the safety of operation.

"Serious incident" an incident involving circumstances indicating that there was a high probability of an accident and is associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down.

The following list is not exhaustive and only serves as guidance to the definition of serious incident.

1. Near collisions requiring an avoidance manoeuvre to avoid a collision or an unsafe situation or when an avoidance action would have been appropriate.
2. Controlled flight into terrain only marginally avoided.
3. Aborted take-offs on a closed or engaged runway, on a taxiway* or unassigned runway.
4. Take-offs from a closed or engaged runway, from a taxiway* or unassigned runway.
5. Landings or attempted landings on a closed or engaged runway, on a taxiway* or unassigned runway.
6. Gross failures to achieve predicted performance during take-off or initial climb..
7. Fires and smoke in the passenger compartment, in cargo compartments or engine fires, even though such fires were extinguished by the use of extinguishing agents.
8. Events requiring the emergency use of oxygen by the flight crew.
9. Aircraft structural failures or engine disintegrations, including uncontained turbine engine failures, not classified as an accident..
10. Multiple malfunctions of one or more aircraft systems seriously affecting the operation of the aircraft..

11. Flight crew incapacitation in flight.
12. Fuel quantity requiring the declaration of an emergency by the pilot.
13. Runway incursions classified with severity A.
14. Take-off or landing incidents. Incidents such as undershooting, overrunning or running off the side of runways.
15. System failures, weather phenomena, operations outside the approved flight envelope or other occurrences which could have caused difficulties controlling the aircraft.
16. Failures of more than one system in a redundancy system mandatory for flight guidance and navigation.
17. Air traffic services related incidents; such as ATM-specific occurrences, ATC Navigation and Communications significant malfunction or deterioration of service, ATC overload, failure or unplanned shutdown of a major operational ATC computer system.
18. Decompression.
19. Bomb on-board aircraft on ground or inflight.
20. Biological / Chemical threats on ground or inflight.
21. Highjacking inflight or on ground.
22. Any disruptive passenger incident. (any passenger who became disruptive during flight time any incident/accident occurred pertaining to any passenger behave).
23. Any other incident on ground or in air or in and around operational airport which requires further investigations by CAASL as per the evaluation of Accountable Manager of the Responsible Organization.

REPORTING ACCIDENTS

Botswana Civil Aviation (Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation) Regulations of 2012 require operators and pilots (or anybody who becomes aware of an accident or serious incident) to notify DAI immediately after aviation accidents and incidents occur.
To report an accident/incident, the informant should provide the following information
 
• the identification of the person providing information

• the nature of the occurrence

• the date and local time of the occurrence

• location

• name of the owner, operator and hirer of the aircraft involved

• the manufacturer, model, nationality and registration marks and serial number of the aircraft

• the time and last point of departure and the next point of intended landing

• the Qualification of the pilot-in-command and the nationality of the crew and passengers;

• the number of crew members and passengers on board the aircraft at the time of the occurrence;

• the number of fatalities of crew members, passengers or other persons respectively or seriously injured

• the extent of damage

• the position of the aircraft with reference to some easily identified geographical point

• the latitude and longitude and topographical characteristics;

• the presence and description of dangerous goods on board the aircraft.

 

PUBLICATIONS

Advisory Leaflet    

CONTACTS

When notifying the Directorate of Accident Investigation, the notifying person should provide whatever information he is able to gather as soon as possible without waiting for all the information to become available. Details omitted from the notification may be provided later, when they become available.
 
Reports should be forwarded to the Directorate at: Tel: +267 392-8249/362-5544/361-2000 Mobile: +267 73-008-073/71-455-548 or drop an email to: omoakofi@gov.bw

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